4,950.00

Sample reports can only be downloaded by members.

Europe B2C E-Commerce Market Insights & Forecasts 2024

4,950.00

Sample reports can only be downloaded by members.
Want a discount? Become a member!
This product can only be purchased by members.

Description

Countries Covered: UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Poland, Austria, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, Turkey, Hungary

Pages: 230

Publication Date: 13.06.2024

Questions Covered:

  • What role does AI play in enhancing security in online payments in Europe?
  • How are digital wallets transforming the European payment landscape?
  • What is driving the transformation of the online payments market in Europe?
  • What impact do BNPL services have on European consumers and retailers?
  • What percentage of B2C E-Commerce transactions in Europe are digital wallets forecasted to account for by 2027?

Key Findings:

By 2025, B2C E-Commerce Sales in Europe is Forecasted  to Hit over EUR 500 Billion, as Seen in the Latest yStats.com Report

Market Overview

The European B2C E-Commerce market is projected to reach over EUR 500 billion by 2025, positioning it after China and the U.S. The report also indicates that by 2027, retail E-Commerce sales in Western Europe are expected to significantly increase, making up a notable double-digit percentage of all retail sales. This growth reflects the increasing consumer preference for online shopping and digital transactions.

Regional Trends

In 2023, Norway led Europe with over 90% of its population making online purchases, followed closely by Switzerland and Denmark. France and Germany reported around three-quarters of individuals shopping online, with France boasting a B2C E-Commerce turnover exceeding EUR 100 billion and Germany just under EUR 100 billion respectively. The UK anticipates retail E-Commerce sales to reach over EUR 200 billion by 2027. Other countries such as the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Poland, Greece, Belgium, Turkey, and Hungary showed varying degrees of online shopping behavior, presenting diverse opportunities and challenges in their B2C E-Commerce landscapes.

The Evolution of Cross-Border E-Commerce & Payment Methods in Europe

Cross-border E-Commerce is rapidly gaining ground in Europe, driven by several key factors. First, there’s a push for more consistent regulations across EU countries, making it easier for consumers to shop across borders. Secondly, advancements in shipping and customs processes are streamlining the delivery of products, cutting down both the time and costs involved. For consumers, this translates to greater access to diverse products, often at more competitive prices than what’s available domestically. Alongside this, there is a surge in digital wallet usage, which is reshaping how payments are made online. With digital wallets offering convenience and security, alongside emerging payment methods like Buy Now, Pay Later services, the landscape of online shopping is evolving to better cater to consumer preferences, ultimately boosting sales for retailers.

  1. Key Takeaways
  2. Management Summary

  3. Europe

3.1         Regional

  • Retail E-Commerce Sales, in USD billion, in % of Total Retail Sales, 2021-2027f
  • B2C E-Commerce Sales Value, by Country/Region, in USD trillion, 2025f
  • B2C E-Commerce Turnover, in EUR billion, in % of Year-on-Year Change, 2019-2023f
  • Share of Internet Users Who Bought Goods and Services Online, in % of Internet Users, 2018-2023f
  • Share of E-shoppers Users, by Region, in %, 2022
  • Share of Internet Users And Online Purchases in the Past 12 Months, by Rank and Country, in % of Respondents, And Margin, 2023 (1 of 3)
  • Share of Internet Users And Online Purchases in the Past 12 Months, by Rank and Country, in % of Respondents, And Margin, 2023 (2 of 3)
  • Share of Internet Users And Online Purchases in the Past 12 Months, by Rank and Country, in % of Respondents, And Margin, 2023 (3 of 3)
  • Share of EU Internet Users and of EU Online Purchases in Past 12 Months, in %, 2023
  • Share of Internet Users Who Shopped Online in the Past 12 Months, by Level of Education, in % of Internet Users, February 2023
  • Share of Internet Users Who Shopped Online in the Past 12 Months, by Employment Status, in % of Internet Users, February 2023
  • Share of Internet Users Who Shopped Online in the Past 12 Months, by Nationality, in % of Internet Users, February 2023
  • Top Product Categories Purchased Online in the Past 12 Months, in % of Internet Users, February 2023
  • Share of Online Shoppers Purchasing from Sellers in the Past 12 Months, by Type of Seller, in % of Online Shoppers, February 2023
  • Recommerce Market Size, in EUR billion, 2021 & 2025f
  • Fashion Recommerce Market Size, in EUR billion, 2021 & 2025f
  • Share of Recommerce Market Making Up Total B2C E-Commerce Market, in %, 2022e & 2027f
  • Share of Fashion Recommerce Market Making Up Total Fashion B2C E-Commerce Market, in %, 2021 & 2025f
  • Non-Cash Transaction Volume, by Regions, in billions, and Y-o-Y Change of Global Value, in %, 2021e-2026f
  • B2B Non-Cash Transaction Volume, by Regions, in billions, and Y-o-Y Change of Global Value, in %, 2020-2026f
  • Embedded Finance Market Size, in EUR billion, 2023e & 2028f
  • Top Concerns When It Comes to Embedded Financial Services and Products, in % of Respondents, April 2023
  • Breakdown of Monthly Shopper Engagement Increase With Brands Due to Embedded Finance, in %, May 2023
  • Behavior Based On the Cost of Living, in % of Respondents, May 2023
  • Commercial & Loyalty Benefits of Embedded Finance From Brands, in % of Respondents, May 2023
  • Top Use Cases of BaaS in Retail in the Next 1-3 Years, in % of Executives, 2023e
  • Top Use Cases of BaaS in Business in the Next 1-3 Years, in % of Executives, 2023e
  • Biggest Opportunities for BaaS Providers, in %, 2023e
  • Online Payment Fraud Loss Value, by Region, in USD billion, 2025f
  • Breakdown of Fraudulent B2C E-Commerce Transaction Value, by Region, in %, 2023e
  • Share of Card Fraud That Involves Cross-Border Transactions, in %, 2023e

3.2          UK

  • Retail E-Commerce Sales, in USD billion, in % of Year-On-Year Change, 2021-2027f
  • Share of B2C E-Commerce Making Up Total Retail Sales, 2023e & 2024f
  • Share of B2C E-Commerce Making Up Total Retail Sales, 2023e & 2024f
  • Share of Online Food Retail Making Up Total Food Retail, in %, Mach 2022* & March 2023
  • Year-on-Year Change in Retail E-Commerce Cross-Border Buyers, in %, 2020-2025f
  • Most Popular Activities on Mobile Devices, in % of Respondents, 2022
  • Share of Adults That Made a Purchase Using a Mobile Phone or the Internet, by Gender, in %, 2022
  • Weekly Online Shopping Activities, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Online Shopping Drivers, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Top Channels For Online Brand Research, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Top Activities For Which Consumers Use Retailer’s Mobile App, in % of Respondents, February 2023
  • Share of Shoppers Who Use Digital And Physical Touchpoints on the Same Customer Journey, in %, 2024e
  • Share of Respondents Who Are Most Concerned About Sustainability in Non-Food Retail, in %, 2024e
  • Channels Used For Product Research And Inspiration, in % of Shoppers, 2024e
  • Number of Social Buyers, in millions, in Year-on-Year Change, in %, 2021-2025f
  • Most Preferred B2C E-Commerce Out-of-Home Return Points, in % of Shoppers, 2024e
  • Share of Shoppers Who Expect Free B2C E-Commerce Returns, in %, 2023 & 2024e
  • Click-and-Collect Sales, in GBP billion, & Share of Retail E-Commerce Sales, in %, 2020-2026f
  • B2C E-Commerce Player Trends, May 2024
  • Most Funded Startup Sectors, by VC Investment, in USD million, 2024e
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in Mil, Bounce Rate in %, and Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in Mil, Bounce Rate in %, and Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)
  • AI Use in B2C E-Commerce And Online Payments Overview, May 2024
  • Benefits of AI Use in B2C E-Commerce Delivery, in % of Shoppers, 2024e
  • Share of Organizations Planning AI Adoption, in %, December 2023
  • Adoption of AI Solutions, by Type, in % of Total Adoption, May 2024
  • Adoption of AI, by Sector, in % of AI Adoption Rate, May 2024
  • Online Payment Market Trends, May 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Online Payment Market Trends, May 2024 (2 of 2)
  • Open Banking Market Overview, May 2024
  • Share of Adults That Made a Digital Payment, by Gender, in %, 2022
  • Most Popular Payment Methods for Online Purchases, in % of Adults, February 2024
  • Breakdown of B2C E-Commerce Payment Methods, in % of Total B2C E-Commerce Transactions, 2022
  • Value of Online Card Spending and Contactless Card Spending, in GBP million, March 2022-March 2023
  • Volume of Online Card Payments and Contactless Card Payments, in millions, March 2022-March 2023
  • Share of Mobile Wallet Users Who Have Made a Purchase Via a Retailer’s Embedded Mobile App in the Past Year, in %, 2023e
  • Share of SMEs That Plan to Use Embedded Financial Service Products More in The Next 12 Months, in %, March 2023
  • Biggest Benefits of Embedded Finance Use, in % of SMEs, March 2023
  • Share of Respondents Who Used eCash in the Past 12 Months and Stated It as Their Preferred Online Payment Method, in %, April 2023
  • Share of Online Purchases Paid For Using BNPL Services, in %, January 2022 & January 2023
  • Share of Respondents Who Agree Biometrics Will be Widely Used For Payments, in %, 2025f

3.3          Germany

  • B2C E-Commerce Market Trends, April 2024
  • Total Retail Sales Volume, in EUR billion, & Online Sales Share, in %, 2018-2024f
  • Online Sales Value, in EUR billion, in % of Year-on-Year Change, 2018-2024f
  • Total Change of Online Retail Sales, in EUR billion, 2017-2023
  • Retail E-Commerce Sales, in USD billion, in % of Year-on-Year Change, 2021-2027f
  • Share of B2C E-Commerce Making Up Total Retail Sales, 2023e & 2024f
  • Breakdown of Online Sales, by Marketplace Type
  • Online Purchase Origin, in % of Online Shoppers, 2022
  • Breakdown of Attitude Towards the Future of B2C E-Commerce in the Next 5 Years, in % of Retail Decision Makers, September 2023
  • Share of Retail Decision Makers Who Assume That B2C E-Commerce Will Consolidate in the Coming Years, in %, September 2023
  • Top Areas of Potential For AI Use, in % of Retail Decision Makers, September 2023
  • Top Expectations Towards B2C E-Commerce Sales Volume, in % of Retail Decision Makers, September 2023
  • Factors of Influence on B2C E-Commerce in the Next 5 Years, in % of Retail Decision Makers, September 2023 (1 of 2)
  • Factors of Influence on B2C E-Commerce in the Next 5 Years, in % of Retail Decision Makers, September 2023 (2 of 2)
  • Breakdown of B2C E-Commerce Sales, by Payment Methods, in %, 2023
  • Share of PayPal Making Up Total B2C E-Commerce Sales, 2022 & 2023
  • Share of Respondents Who Used eCash in the Past 12 Months and Stated It as Their Preferred Online Payment Method, in %, April 2023
  • Total Number of Real-Time Transactions, in billions, 2021 & 2026f
  • Breakdown of Transaction Volume, by Payments Instrument, in % of Total Payment Transaction Volume, 2021 vs 2026f
  • Share of Online Merchants Who Identified an Increase in B2C E-Commerce Fraud, in %, 2023e
  • Share of Adults With a Digital-Only Bank Account, in %, 2022* & 2027f
  • Breakdown of Average B2C E-Commerce Delivery Cost Charged to Online Shoppers, in % of Online Merchants, 2023
  • Breakdown of the Average B2C E-Commerce Delivery Time, in % of Online Merchants, 2023
  • Share of Online Shoppers For Who Fast Delivery Was a Deciding Criteria When Choosing a Shipping Service Provider, in %, 2023
  • Breakdown of Return Rates of Online Purchases, in % of Online Merchants, 2023e
  • Top 10 Strategies to Avoid Online Returns, in % of Online Merchants, 2023e
  • Breakdown of Retail E-Commerce Sales, by Product Category, in %, 2023
  • Share of Online Making Up Total Retail Sales, by Product Category, in % of Total Retail Sales, 2022 & 2023
  • Annual Retail E-Commerce Sales Change, by Product Category, in % of Year-on-Year Change, 2024
  • Total Online vs. Offline Retail Sales Change From 2019, by Product Category, in %, 2023
  • Breakdown of Formats in Online Sales, by Product Category, in %, 2023
  • Share of Online Sales Making Up Total Retail Sales, Food vs Non-Food, in % of Total Retail Sales, 2021-2023
  • Average Annual Online vs Offline Growth of Retail Sales, by Product Type, in % of Year-On-Year Growth, 2023
  • Origin of Cross-Border B2C E-Commerce Purchases, in % of Internet Users, 2023
  • Channels Through Which Stationary Retailers Sell Online, in % of Stationary Retailers, 2021-2023
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in Mil, Bounce Rate in %, and Pages Per Visit, March 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in Mil, Bounce Rate in %, and Pages Per Visit, March 2024 (2 of 2)
  • Overview of B2C E-Commerce Platform Temu’s Market Entry, May 2024
  • Social Commerce Trends, April 2024
  • Top Effects of Social Commerce, by Consumer Type, in % of Consumers, January 2024

3.4          France

  • Retail E-Commerce Sales, in USD billion, in % of Year-on-Year Change, 2021-2027f
  • Share of B2C E-Commerce Making Up Total Retail Sales, 2023e & 2024f
  • Share of Online Shoppers Making Up Total Population, in %, 2022
  • Year-on-Year Change in Retail E-Commerce Cross-Border Buyers, in %, 2020-2025f
  • Online Purchase Origin, in % of Online Shoppers, 2022
  • Share of Adults That Made a Purchase Using a Mobile Phone or the Internet, by Gender, in %, 2022
  • Weekly Online Shopping Activities, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Online Shopping Drivers, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Top Channels For Online Brand Research, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Share of Adults That Made a Digital Payment, by Gender, in %, 2022
  • Breakdown of B2C E-Commerce Payment Methods, in % of Total B2C E-Commerce Transactions, 2022

3.5          Italy

  • Retail E-Commerce Sales, in USD billion, in % of Year-On-Year Change, 2021-2027f
  • Share of B2C E-Commerce Making Up Total Retail Sales, 2023e & 2024f
  • Year-on-Year Change in Retail E-Commerce Cross-Border Buyers, in %, 2020-2025f
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024

3.6          Spain

  • Retail E-Commerce Sales, in USD billion, 2021-2027f
  • Share of B2C E-Commerce Making Up Total Retail Sales, 2023e & 2024f
  • Year-on-Year Change in Retail E-Commerce Cross-Border Buyers, in %, 2020-2025f
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Share of the Top Payment Methods Used For Online Payment, in % of Online Transactions, Q1 2023

3.7          Netherlands

  • Share of Online Shoppers Making Up Total Population, in %, 2023e
  • Share of Adults That Made a Purchase Using a Mobile Phone or the Internet, by Gender, in %, 2022
  • Weekly Online Shopping Activities, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Online Shopping Drivers, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Breakdown of B2C E-Commerce Payment Methods, in % of Total B2C E-Commerce Transactions, 2022
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top 3 Payment Methods Used For Online Purchases, in % of Online Purchases, April 2023
  • Breakdown of Transaction Volume, by Payments Instrument, in % of Total Payment Transaction Volume, 2022 vs 2027f

3.8          Sweden

  • Share of Online Shoppers Making Up Total Population, in %, 2023e
  • Share of Adults That Made a Purchase Using a Mobile Phone or the Internet, by Gender, in %, 2022
  • Weekly Online Shopping Activities, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Online Shopping Drivers, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Breakdown of B2C E-Commerce Payment Methods, in % of Total B2C E-Commerce Transactions, 2022
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024

3.9          Switzerland

  • Share of Online Shoppers Making Up Total Population, in %, 2023e
  • Share of Adults That Made a Purchase Using a Mobile Phone or the Internet, by Gender, in %, 2022
  • Weekly Online Shopping Activities, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Online Shopping Drivers, in % of Internet Users, Q3 2023
  • Breakdown of B2C E-Commerce Payment Methods, in % of Total B2C E-Commerce Transactions, 2022
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024

3.10        Poland

  • Overview of B2C E-Commerce And Online Payment Landscape, June 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024

3.11        Austria

  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in millions, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in millions, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)

3.12        Norway

  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)

3.13        Denmark

  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024

3.14        Belgium

  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in million, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024

3.15        Finland

  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024

3.16        Turkey

  • Overview of B2C E-Commerce And Online Payment Landscape, June 2024
  • Number of Domestic E-Commerce Transactions With Domestic Bank Cards, in millions, and Value, in TRY million, Q1 2022-Q1 2023
  • Number of Cross-Border E-Commerce Transactions With Domestic Bank Cards, in millions, and Value, in TRY million, Q1 2022-Q1 2023
  • Number And Value of Contactless Mobile Transactions, in millions, and Value in TRY million, Q1 2022-Q1 2023
  • Top B2C E-Commerce & Shopping Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top B2C E-Commerce Marketplace Websites Ranking, % of Total Traffic Share, April 2024
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in millions, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (1 of 2)
  • Top Retail Websites, by Visits in millions, Bounce Rate in %, And Pages Per Visit, April 2024 (2 of 2)

3.17        Hungary

  • Share of Payment Methods Available in Online Stores, in % of Online Stores, 2023e
  • Total Number of Real-Time Transactions, in millions, 2022 & 2027f
  • Action
  • Akakce
  • Aliexpress
  • Amazon
  • Apple
  • Argos
  • Asda
  • Bauhaus
  • Billa
  • Blocket
  • Bol
  • Boulanger
  • Brico
  • Brack
  • Carrefour
  • Cardmarket
  • Casadellibro
  • Cdiscount
  • Clashohlson
  • Cuisineaz
  • Decathalon
  • Dealabs
  • Depop
  • Digitec
  • Darty
  • Ebay
  • Elcorteingles
  • Etsy
  • Esselunga
  • Eurospin
  • Fnac
  • Galaxus
  • Geizhals
  • Google
  • Hornbach
  • Ica
  • Ikea
  • Instagram
  • Interdiscount
  • Jula
  • Jumbo
  • Kaufland
  • Leroy Merlin
  • Lidl
  • LVMH
  • Manomano
  • Marktplaats
  • Mediamarkt
  • Mercari
  • Microsoft
  • Milanuncios
  • Netonnet
  • Next
  • Nike
  • Obi
  • Otto
  • Paypal
  • Pccomponentes
  • Poshmark
  • Praxis
  • Rewe
  • Samsung
  • Sainsburys
  • Seep
  • Shein
  • Shopify
  • Silvan
  • Stripe
  • Subito
  • Screwfix
  • Systembolaget
  • Tiktok
  • Tesco
  • Trovaprezzi
  • Tradera
  • Turkcell
  • Unieuro
  • Veepee
  • Vestiaire Collective
  • Vinted
  • Zalando
  • Zara

Related Products…